On November 2, 2022, on the 2nd anniversary of the war, with the mediation of the African Union, the agreement on the permanent end of hostilities in northern Ethiopia was signed in Pretoria. Tigray’s representative admitted that “painful concessions” had been made and recalled that “the level of destruction is immense”…

On Nov. 12, the leaders of the two contending armies signed a road map in Nairobi for the disarmament of Tigrinya’s fighters and the recognition of a single federal state. They signed a document titled “Declaration of the Major Commanders on Modalities for the Implementation of the Agreement for a Lasting Peace through a Permanent Cessation of Hostilities,” the original of which you can read on the Focus on Africa website here

However, other Afar and Amhara regional militias are known to have intervened in support of the federal army. Even more relevant is the alliance with Eritrea, which has cultivated strong resentment since the 1998-2000 border war. No representatives of these parties, however, participated in the Nairobi peace talks. Tplf and Tigray TV reports testify that the Eritrean military continues to commit crimes against the civilian population, including near Adwa. Finally, the 12/11 understanding includes Addis Ababa’s commitment to resume unimpeded access to humanitarian aid and the restoration of basic communications and social services. After an ongoing total blockade since August, the first delivery of international aid has reached the capital Macallé. But in the outlying areas, where there is still fighting, nothing is arriving: no aid, no services, and no telecommunications.

Many questions remain: will other armed militias involved in the conflict also lay down their arms? Will there be changes in the borders? How and by whom will war crimes committed be judged? When will the violence and deprivation in more peripheral areas such as Adwa end?

We hope with all our hearts that words will be followed by deeds, that all forms of violence will end, and that humanitarian aid access will really be facilitated, contrary to what has been done since August.

We share an in-depth Limes report on the current situation: